You are currently viewing Najaf Bey Vazirov’s scientific work called “Oak” as the first example of ecological research

Najaf Bey Vazirov’s scientific work called “Oak” as the first example of ecological research

  • Post category:NEWS

Najaf Bey Vazirov is one of the figures who gained eternity as a research dendrologist in the history of Azerbaijan literature as well as in natural science.

The role of his teacher called Hasan Bey Zardabi is undeniable in the development of Najaf Bey Vazirov, who was interested in reading and writing and learning new knowledge from an early age, and in the emergence and formation of his interest in natural sciences. Hasan Bey Zardabi’s bright thoughts had a strong influence on his development. Reading the works of world-Russian classical writers, he got acquainted with progressive ideas .

After graduating from the gymnasium, Najaf Bey Vezirov continued his higher education at the Forestry Department  at the Petrovsky – Razumovsky Academy of Forestry and Natural Science in Moscow. In 1878 he graduated from the Academy in the relevant specialty and was sent to the Caucasus by appointment. First, he was  appointed to Tartar, and a few years later to Dilijan District of Yerevan Governorate, and from there to Yelizavetpol Governorate. During his work in  his specialty, he conducted scientific-research works related to the forests of Azerbaijan. He wrote relevant scientific works and textbooks based on the scientific knowledge he gained and the practical results he obtained. It should be noted that until N.Bey Vazirov, the forests of Azerbaijan were not deeply studied. His observations and studies provide the Forester-Dendrologist with enough material for scientific generalization. Thus, he wrote his scientific work  called “Oak” dedicated to the forests of Azerbaijan.

In this work consisting of 110 pages, he gave information about the species composition of plants growing in the forests of our country, biological characteristics of trees such as oak, fistula, birch, alder, poplar, maple, Linden, pine, fir which are widespread or rare in our forests, construction of artificial forests, methods of reproduction of forest plants, interaction of the forest with the environment, economic, ecological and economic importance of the forest.

To explain the general issues of forestry more clearly, he divided the work into these sections: “The life force of the forest”, “The reason why forests are not like this”, “The influence of communities on each other in the forest”, “The ratio of trees to light”, “The ratio of trees to heat”, ” Ratio of trees to cultural substances in the soil”, “Rapid growth of trees”, “Derivation of trees”

For the first time N.B.Vazirov carried out  the scientific approach to plants and their scientific naming in the history of natural sciences of Azerbaijan. In addition to the Azerbaijani names of the forest trees that he mentioned, he also wrote Russian and Latin names (some only in Latin) of the trees next to the Azerbaijani names

“Oak” is valuable as the first scientific work dedicated to vegetation and forestry in Azerbaijan.In his work called “Oak” N.B. Vazirov talked about the structure and biological characteristics of individual plants,  the interaction of forest plants with each other. Here are examples of the influence of the external environment, such as climate, light, humidity, soil, and all matters are explained on scientific ground.

N.B. Vazirov especially highlighted the role of inanimate environmental factors, including light and soil, in the struggle for survival of plants. It is emphasized in the work that which of the plants living in a group is strong, that means that it is well provided with sunlight, so it can develop well. The author’s opinions about the biological characteristics of the individual trees mentioned in the book are very interesting.

In this work when he gave information about oak being an economically important, valuable material, strong and durable, he wrote: “Because the oak’s root goes deep into the ground, strong winds can not separate it from the ground. Among trees, oak is a strong and valuable wood. Oak is thought the ornament of the forest. Its root penetrates more than a sajen into the ground, and no storm can pull it out of the ground with its root. His wings are broken, but he himself stands in place.”

Based on his observations, N.B.Vzirov divided plants and trees into two parts, light-resistant and shade-resistant, based on the ratio of plants and trees to light. For example, he said that fir is a shade-tolerant plant, and pine is a light-loving plant.

Also he seperated plants into three groups according to their relationship to water: “one that likes dryness”, “one that likes humidity”, and the third one is “miana” (that likes a mild climate). In the work N.B. Vazirov also wrote the sequence order of some trees according to their water demand.

In the work, he divided trees according to the need for soil into two groups: demanding on nutritious soil and more demanding on soil. He gave examples to each one. In his opinion, plants with a lot of fringes of their roots can grow on the soil without strength. And the best soil is soft and deeply nutritious soil.

According to the fertility, N.B.Vazirov divided the soils into types: forest soil, sandy soil, clay soil, sugillary soil, clay soil, rotted soil. According to its moisture content, he divided the soil into three parts, which are dry (when pressed hard, it crumbles), sweat (when squeezed in hand, it sticks) and wet (when squeezed in hand, water is poured).

Based on the plan drawn up by Najaf Bey Vazirov, it is possible to learn the growth, age and characteristics of living and decayed trees.It is also determine the trees based on the depth and humidity of the forest soil, determine the resistance of trees to shade and describe them. The scientific work “Oak” has many values for the development of forestry in Azerbaijan.

 With his former teacher Hasan Bey Zardabi, he actively participated in the opening of new schools and various educational centers for the enlightenment of his native people. He took his students to different regions of Azerbaijan, led practical trainings in forestry, prepared educational programs, methodical instructions and textbooks on forestry.

N.B.Vazirov, who admired Azerbaijani nature, loved his job so much that death overtook him while performing his favorite profession and conducting practical classes on forestry. A prominent prose writer, playwright, Dendrologist Najaf Bey Vezirov died of heart disease during the experiment.

I should emphasize that till today the works of the writer-Dendrologist have been repeatedly published in mass circulation, dramatic works have been staged, many articles have been written about him, scientific works and monographs have been developed about his work.

I should also empahsize that in the “Year of Solidarity for a Green World” I considered it my moral duty to remember the writer dendrologist Najaf bey Vazirov and to present a research report on the work “Oak” and prepared a thesis on this topic. I would like to thank my supervisor Parvin Huseynova who supported me in this work.

Gunel Hasanova,
Student of MSU Scientific advisor – Parvin Huseynova, Ph.D. in philology